ISDT Dependencies

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Dependency categories highlighted in yellow are not used in the basic variant of ISDT (v2.0 - released for Evalita 2014)

TagsDescriptions from Stanford Typed Dependencies Manual, v.3.2, June 2013ExamplesComments
acomp adjectival complement

An adjectival complement of a verb is an adjectival phrase which functions as the complement (like an object of the verb)

"Lo hanno dichiarato colpevole" acomp(dichiarato, colpevole)
"Considero Maria simpatica" acomp(considero, simpatica)

advcl adverbial clause modifier

An adverbial clause modifier of a VP or S is a clause modifying the verb (temporal clause, consequence, conditional clause, purpose clause, etc.)

"Quando venne coniato il termine, esso era applicato a un particolare fenomeno atmosferico" advcl(applicato, coniato)
"Se non entrano in contatto con goccioline d'acqua, questi gas possono depositarsi sul suolo" advcl(depositarsi, entrano)

advmod adverbial modifier

An adverbial modifier of a word is a (non-clausal) adverb or adverbial phrase (ADVP) that serves to modify the meaning of the word

"È stato immediatamente individuato" advmod(individuato, immediatamente)

agent agent

An agent is the complement of a passive verb which is introduced by the preposition "by" and does the action. This relation only appears in the collapsed dependencies, where it can replace prep_by, where appropriate. It does not appear in basic dependencies output

"Uno di loro sarebbe già stato riconosciuto dai due ragazzi" agent(riconosciuto, ragazzi)
"il precedente era stato stabilito da un canadese" agent(stabilito, canadese)

amod adjectival modifier

An adjectival modifier of an NP is any adjectival phrase that serves to modify the meaning of the NP
Used also for numbers, when they represent age. John Smith (33) ...

"nuovo record" amod(record, nuovo)
"nell'ultima edizione della famosa maratona" amod(maratona, famosa)

appos appositional modifier

An appositional modifier of an NP is an NP immediately to the right of the first NP that serves to define or modify that NP. It includes parenthesized examples, as well as defining abbreviations in one of these structures.

"Marcello Pagliacci, direttore del centro" appos(Pagliacci, direttore)
"il presidente Scalfaro" appos(Scalfaro, presidente)
"piccole e medie imprese (PMI)" appos(imprese, PMI)

attr attributive

An attributive is a complement of a copular verb such as "to be", "to seem", "to appear". Currently, the converter only recognizes WHNP complements.

benché Allende fosse già presidente attr(fosse, presidente)

"è la verità" attr(è, verità)
aux auxiliary

An auxiliary of a clause is a non-main verb of the clause, e.g., a modal auxiliary, or a form of "be", "do" or "have" in a periphrastic tense

"quella che ha fatto" aux(fatto, ha)
"era convinto di dover vivere" aux(vivere, dover)

auxpass passive auxiliary

A passive auxiliary of a clause is a non-main verb of the clause which contains the passive information

"Significa che sono state tagliate le vie nervose" auxpass(tagliate, state)
"Le donne candidate vengono ritenute intelligenti" auxpass(ritenute, vengono)

cc coordination

A coordination is the relation between an element of a conjunct and the coordinating conjunction word of the conjunct. (Note: different dependency grammars have different treatments of coordination. We take one conjunct of a conjunction (normally the first) as the head of the conjunction.) A conjunction may also appear at the beginning of a sentence. This is also called a cc, and dependent on the root predicate of the sentence.

"arriviste ed ambiziose" cc(arriviste, ed)
"molto o abbastanza" cc(molto, o)

ccomp clausal complement

A clausal complement of a verb or adjective is a dependent clause with an internal subject which functions like an object of the verb, or adjective. Clausal complements for nouns are limited to complement clauses with a subset of nouns like "fact" or "report". We analyze them the same (parallel to the analysis of this class as "content clauses" in Huddleston and Pullum 2002). Such clausal complements are usually finite (though there are occasional remnant English subjunctives)

"chiedere all'uomo che modifichi il suo comportamento" ccomp(chiedere, modifichi)
"nessuno ha mai capito perché si è divertito a sabotare l'incontro" ccomp(capito, divertito)

conj conjunct

A conjunct is the relation between two elements connected by a coordinating conjunction, such as "and", "or", etc. We treat conjunctions asymmetrically: The head of the relation is the first conjunct and other conjunctions depend on it via the conj relation.

"a colpi di fucile e di pistola" conj(di, di)

cop copula

A copula is the relation between the complement of a copular verb and the copular verb.

"Giovanni è un uomo onesto" cop(uomo, è) CH (Content Head) VARIANT
csubj clausal subject

A clausal subject is a clausal syntactic subject of a clause, i.e., the subject is itself a clause. The governor of this relation might not always be a verb: when the verb is a copular verb, the root of the clause is the complement of the copular verb. In the two following examples, "what she said" is the subject.

"Che tu abbia ragione è indubbio" csubj(è, abbia)
"A tutti è noto che il Costanzo decedette il giorno stesso" csubj(è, decedette)

csubjpass clausal passive subject

A clausal passive subject is a clausal syntactic subject of a passive clause. In the example below, "that she lied" is the subject.

"Che mentisse era sospettato da tutti" csubjpass(sospettato, mentisse)
dep dependent

A dependency is labeled as dep when the system is unable to determine a more precise dependency relation between two words. This may be because of a weird grammatical construction, a limitation in the Stanford Dependency conversion software, a parser error, or because of an unresolved long distance dependency.

"sono 200 mila le persone in fuga (foto Reuter)" dep(sono, foto)
"Milano - Si rallegrino scrittrici e scienziate ..." dep(rallegrino, Milano)

det determiner

A determiner is the relation between the head of an NP and its determiner

"La cosiddetta guerra elettronica" det(guerra, la);
"restano solamente alcuni frammenti" det(frammenti, alcuni)

discourse discourse element

This is used for interjections and other discourse particles and elements (which are not clearly linked to the structure of the sentence, except in an expressive way). We generally follow the guidelines of what the Penn Treebanks count as an INTJ. They define this to include: interjections (oh, uh-huh, Welcome), fillers (um, ah), and discourse markers (well, like, actually, but not you know)

Carlo è in Argentina :-) discourse(è, :-))

dobj direct object

The direct object of a VP is the noun phrase which is the (accusative) object of the verb

"quando mi vede" dobj(vede, mi);
"hanno vinto la lotteria" dobj(vinto, lotteria)

expl expletive

This relation captures an existential \there". The main verb of the clause is the governor

"Se vi è un bersaglio" expl(è, vi);
"Ci sarà un rinnovamento" expl(sarà, ci)

goeswith goes with

This relation links two parts of a word that are separated in text that is not well edited. We follow the treebank: The GW part is the dependent and the head is in some sense the "main" part, often the second part.

They come here with out legal permission

infmod infinitival modifier

An infinitival modifier of an NP is an infinitive that serves to modify the meaning of the NP.

Replaced by VMOD
iobj indirect object

The indirect object of a VP is the noun phrase which is the (dative) object of the verb

"assegna alla proprietà anche una funzione sociale" iobj(assegna, proprietà);
"capacità riconosciuta- gli" iobj(riconosciuta-, gli);
"ti ho dato l'oro" iobj(dato, ti)

mark marker

A marker is the word introducing a finite clause subordinate to another clause. For a complement clause, this will typically be "that" or "whether". For an adverbial clause, the marker is typically a preposition like "while" or "although". The mark is a dependent of the subordinate clause head.

"Quando sono stati investiti dalla violenza del fulmine" mark(investiti, quando);
"Mentre leggono le notizie" mark(leggono, mentre)

mwe multi-word expression

The multi-word expression (modifier) relation is used for certain multi-word idioms that behave like a single function word. It is used for a closed set of dependencies between words in common multi-word expressions for which it seems difficult or unclear to assign any other relationships. At present, this relation is used inside the following expressions: rather than, as well as, instead of, such as, because of, instead of, in addition to, all but, such as, because of, instead of, due to. The boundaries of this class are unclear; it could grow or shrink a little over time

"top secret" mwe(top, secret);
"meno che meno" mwe(meno, che) mwe(che, meno);
"fino a prova contraria" mwe(fino, a)

neg negation modifier

The negation modifier is the relation between a negation word and the word it modifies

"Non mi piace" neg(piace, non)

nn noun compound modifier

A noun compound modifier of an NP is any noun that serves to modify the head noun. (Note that in the current system for dependency extraction, all nouns modify the rightmost noun of the NP { there is no intelligent noun compound analysis. This is likely to be fixed once the Penn Treebank represents the branching structure of NPs.)

"la macchina cinema" nn(macchina, cinema);
"l'effetto serra" nn(effetto, serra)

nnp proper nouns modifiers

"Woody Allen" nnp(Allen, Woody);
"Mariateresa Di Lascia" nnp(Lascia, Mariateresa) nnp(Lascia, Di)

npadvmod noun phrase as adverbial modifier

This relation captures various places where something syntactically a noun phrase (NP) is used as an adverbial modifier in a sentence. These usages include: (i) a measure phrase, which is the relation between the head of an ADJP/ADVP/PP and the head of a measure phrase modifying the ADJP/ADVP; (ii) noun phrases giving an extent inside a VP which are not objects; (iii) financial constructions involving an adverbial or PP-like NP, notably the following construction $5 a share, where the second NP means \per share"; (iv) oating reflexives; and (v) certain other absolutive NP constructions. A temporal modifier (tmod) is a subclass of npadvmod which is distinguished as a separate relation.

"Costava sei lire" npadvmod(costava, lire);
"a quota un milione" npadvmod(quota, milione);
"tutte, una dopo l'altra" npadvmod(tutte, una)

nsubj nominal subject

A nominal subject is a noun phrase which is the syntactic subject of a clause. The governor of this relation might not always be a verb: when the verb is a copular verb, the root of the clause is the complement of the copular verb, which can be an adjective or noun.

"è bastata una decisa accelerazione" nsubj(bastata, accelerazione);
"Fabiana Luperini sta dominando la gara" nsubj(dominando, Luperini)

nsubjpass passive nominal subject

A passive nominal subject is a noun phrase which is the syntactic subject of a passive clause

"L'ex arbitro triestino è stato messo in castigo" nsubjpass(messo, arbitro)

num numeric modifier

A numeric modifier of a noun is any number phrase that serves to modify the meaning of the noun

"Ha cambiato due ministri" num(ministri, due);
"Dopo cinque anni di lavoro" num(anni, cinque)

number element of compound number

An element of compound number is a part of a number phrase or currency amount

"35 milioni lordi a stagione" number(milioni, 35);
"In città ci sono 500 mila persone" number(mila, 500)

parataxis parataxis

The parataxis relation (from Greek for \place side by side") is a relation between the main verb of a clause and other sentential elements, such as a sentential parenthetical, a clause after a ":" or a ";", or two sentences placed side by side without any explicit coordination or subordination.

"Eppure, prosegue la lettera, a tutti è noto il fatto" parataxis(è, prosegue)

partmod participial modifier

A participial modifier of an NP or VP or sentence is a participial verb form that serves to modify the meaning of a noun phrase or sentence

"tradotto in moneta corrente, 1 miliardo di euro" partmod(miliardo, tradotto)
"sono volati nel burrone, sfracellando- si sulle rocce" partmod(volati, sfraccellando-)

pcomp prepositional complement

This is used when the complement of a preposition is a clause or prepositional phrase (or occasionally, an adverbial phrase). The prepositional complement of a preposition is the head of a clause following the preposition, or the preposition head of the following PP

"I vigili del fuoco sono accorsi per domare il rogo" pcomp(per, domare);
"Sono rientrati per sempre in Italia" pcomp(per, sempre)

pobj object of a preposition

The object of a preposition is the head of a noun phrase following the preposition, or the adverbs "here" and "there". (The preposition in turn may be modifying a noun, verb, etc.) Unlike the Penn Treebank, we here define cases of VBG quasi-prepositions like "including", "concerning", etc. as instances of pobj. (The preposition can be tagged a FW for "pace", "versus", etc. It can also be called a CC { but we don't currently handle that and would need to distinguish from conjoined prepositions.) In the case of preposition stranding, the object can precede the preposition (e.g., "What does CPR stand for?").

"voce spese generali del suo studio" pobj(del, studio);
"un appartamento a Milano" pobj(a, Milano)

poss possession modifier

The possession modifier relation holds between the head of an NP and its possessive determiner

"voce spese generali del suo studio" poss(studio, suo);

possessive possessive modifier

The possessive modifier relation appears between the head of an NP and the genitive 's.

preconj preconjunct

A preconjunct is the relation between the head of an NP and a word that appears at the beginning bracketing a conjunction (and puts emphasis on it), such as "either", "both", "neither").

"sia per le imprese editoriali, sia per le agenzie di stampa, i costi sono alti" preconj(imprese, sia)

predet predeterminer

A predeterminer is the relation between the head of an NP and a word that precedes and modifies the meaning of the NP determiner.

"Tutte le piccole e medie aziende" predet(aziende, tutte)
prep prepositional modifier

A prepositional modifier of a verb, adjective, or noun is any prepositional phrase that serves to modify the meaning of the verb, adjective, noun, or even another prepositon. In the collapsed representation, this is used only for prepositions with NP complements

"programmi per il trattamento della pelle" prep(programmi, per) prep(trattamento, della);

prepc prepositional clausal modifier

In the collapsed representation (see section 4), a prepositional clausal modifier of a verb, adjective, or noun is a clause introduced by a preposition which serves to modify the meaning of the verb, adjective, or noun.

"Li offre senza chiedere nulla in cambio" prepc_senza(offre, chiedere)

prt phrasal verb particle

Used for clitic pronoun in reflexive verbs

"appostar-si nel parcheggio" prt(appostar-, si)
"si divertì" prt(divertì, si)
punct punctuation

This is used for any piece of punctuation in a clause, if punctuation is being retained in the typed dependencies. By default, punctuation is not retained in the output

"Beato chi vi vede !" punct(Beato, !);
"AISM ( Associazione Italiana per gli studi di marketing )" punct(Associazione, ( ) punct(Associazione, ) )

quantmod quantifier phrase modifier

A quantifier modifier is an element modifying the head of a QP constituent. (These are modifiers in complex numeric quantifiers, not other types of "quantification". Quantifiers like "all" become det.)

"Vi sono oltre 40 modelli messi in commercio" quantmod(40, oltre)

rcmod relative clause modifier

"I saw the man you love" rcmod(man, love); "I saw the book which you bought" rcmod(book,bought)

"distinzioni che possono rendere difficile un confronto" rcmod(distinzioni, rendere)

ref referent

A referent of the head of an NP is the relative word introducing the relative clause modifying the NP

"Ho visto il libro che hai comprato" ref(libro, che)

ROOT root

The root grammatical relation points to the root of the sentence. A fake node "ROOT" is used as the governor. The ROOT node is indexed with "0", since the indexation of real words in the sentence starts at 1

"Hamad Butt è morto nel 1994" ROOT(ROOT, morto)

tmod temporal modifier

A temporal modifier (of a VP, NP, or an ADJP is a bare noun phrase constituent that serves to modify the meaning of the constituent by specifying a time. (Other temporal modifiers are prepositional phrases and are introduced as prep.)

"L'allarme è scattato la scorsa settimana" tmod(scattato, settimana)

xcomp open clausal complement

An open clausal complement (xcomp) of a VP or an ADJP is a clausal complement without its own subject, whose reference is determined by an external subject. These complements are always non-finite. The name xcomp is borrowed from Lexical-Functional Grammar

"Si dice che ami nuotare" xcomp(ami, nuotare)
"Tutti gli esseri umani sanno di poter essere più di ciò che sono" xcomp(sanno, essere)

xsubj controlling subject

A controlling subject is the relation between the head of a open clausal complement (xcomp) and the external subject of that clause. This is an additional dependency, not a basic dependency

"Tom ama mangiare pesce" xsubj(mangiare, Tom)