Difference between revisions of "Dependencies"

From Medialab

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<td>aux</td><td>[http://it.wiktionary.org/wiki/ausiliare auxiliary]</td><td>Relation between a verb and its auxiliary.</td>
+
<td>aux</td><td>[http://it.wiktionary.org/wiki/ausiliare auxiliary]</td><td>Relation between a verb and its auxiliary or between a verbal head and a modal verb.</td>
 
<td>Il corazziere <em class="dep">&egrave;</em> <em class="head">stato</em> individuato<br />
 
<td>Il corazziere <em class="dep">&egrave;</em> <em class="head">stato</em> individuato<br />
 
Il corazziere &egrave; <em class="dep">stato</em> <em class="head">individuato</em><br />
 
Il corazziere &egrave; <em class="dep">stato</em> <em class="head">individuato</em><br />
 
<em class="dep">Ha</em> <em class="head">dichiarato</em> di <em class="dep">aver</em> <em class="head">pagato</em> i terroristi <br />
 
<em class="dep">Ha</em> <em class="head">dichiarato</em> di <em class="dep">aver</em> <em class="head">pagato</em> i terroristi <br />
 +
Una sala ha <em class="dep">dovuto</em> essere <em class="head">sgomberata</em><br />
 +
Avrebbe <em class="dep">potuto</em> <em class="head">ripeter</em>si
 
</td>
 
</td>
 
</tr>
 
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<td>comp</td><td>[http://it.wiktionary.org/wiki/complemento complement]</td><td>Relation between a head and a prepositional complement, whether a modifier or a subcategorized argument.</td><td>
+
<td>comp</td><td>[http://it.wiktionary.org/wiki/complemento complement]</td><td>Relation between a head and a prepositional complement, whether a modifier or a subcategorized argument. Neutralizes comp_ind, comp_loc, comp_temp, ... </td><td>
 
Fu <em class="head">assassinata</em> <em class="dep">da</em> un pazzo<br />
 
Fu <em class="head">assassinata</em> <em class="dep">da</em> un pazzo<br />
 
E' più <em class="head">interessante</em> <em class="dep">del</em> libro<br />
 
E' più <em class="head">interessante</em> <em class="dep">del</em> libro<br />
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<em class="head">Più</em> <em class="dep">di</em> quattrocento esemplari<br />
 
<em class="head">Più</em> <em class="dep">di</em> quattrocento esemplari<br />
 
<em class="head">Osteggiata</em> <em class="dep">dal</em> governo di Berna<br />
 
<em class="head">Osteggiata</em> <em class="dep">dal</em> governo di Berna<br />
<em class="head">Grande</em> <em class="dep">quanto</em> mezza Italia
+
<em class="head">Grande</em> <em class="dep">quanto</em> mezza Italia<br />
 +
Ho <em class="head">dato</em> il libro <em class="dep">a</em> lui<br />
 +
I carabinieri <em class="dep">gli</em> hanno <em class="head">recapitato</em> il decreto<br />
 +
Si <em class="head">trovava</em> <em class="dep">in</em> un parco<br />
 +
Era <em class="head">uscito</em> <em class="dep">di</em> casa alle 10<br />
 +
Si <em class="head">trovava</em> <em class="dep">in</em> un parco<br />
 +
Era <em class="head">uscito</em> <em class="dep">di</em> casa alle 10
 
</td>
 
</td>
 
</tr>
 
</tr>
 
+
<!--
 
<tr>
 
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<td>comp_ind</td><td>[http://it.wiktionary.org/wiki/complemento_di_termine indirect complement/object]</td><td>Denotes the affected participant of an event.</td><td>
 
<td>comp_ind</td><td>[http://it.wiktionary.org/wiki/complemento_di_termine indirect complement/object]</td><td>Denotes the affected participant of an event.</td><td>
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<td>con</td><td>copulative conjunction</td><td>Relation between a copulative conjunction in coordinate structures and the first conjunct (which becomes the head of the whole coordinate structure).
+
<td>con</td><td>copulative conjunction</td><td>Relation between a copulative conjunction or disjunction in coordinate structures and the first conjunct or disjunct.
 
</td><td>
 
</td><td>
 
Una ragazza <em class="head">violentata</em> <em class="dep">e</em> sequestrata da due slavi<br />
 
Una ragazza <em class="head">violentata</em> <em class="dep">e</em> sequestrata da due slavi<br />
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Hanno riarmato, <em class="head">addestrato</em> <em class="dep">e</em> preparato l'esercito<br />
 
Hanno riarmato, <em class="head">addestrato</em> <em class="dep">e</em> preparato l'esercito<br />
 
<em class="head">Scontri</em> <em class="dep">,</em> assalti e centinaia di feriti<br />
 
<em class="head">Scontri</em> <em class="dep">,</em> assalti e centinaia di feriti<br />
Scontri, <em class="head">assalti</em> <em class="dep">e</em> centinaia di feriti
+
Scontri, <em class="head">assalti</em> <em class="dep">e</em> centinaia di feriti<br />
 +
Cassonetti dell'immondizia <em class="head">rovesciati</em> <em class="dep">o</em> incendiati<br />
 +
Partecipa <em class="head">a</em> manifestazioni politiche <em class="dep">o</em> a dibattiti
 
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<td>conj</td><td>conjunct linked by a [[copulative conjunction]] (con)</td><td>Relation between the conjuncts after the first to the first one, which is the head of the whole coordinate structure. ''conj'' is used in association with coordinating copulative conjunctions.
+
<td>conj</td><td>conjunct linked by a [[copulative conjunction]] (con)</td><td>Relation between the conjuncts after the first to the previous one. ''conj'' is used in association with coordinating copulative conjunctions.
 
</td><td>
 
</td><td>
 
Una ragazza <em class="head">violentata</em> e <em class="dep">sequestrata</em> da due slavi<br />
 
Una ragazza <em class="head">violentata</em> e <em class="dep">sequestrata</em> da due slavi<br />
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<em class="head">Scontri</em> , <em class="dep">assalti</em> e centinaia di feriti<br />
 
<em class="head">Scontri</em> , <em class="dep">assalti</em> e centinaia di feriti<br />
 
Scontri, assalti <em class="head">e</em> <em class="dep">centinaia</em> di feriti<br />
 
Scontri, assalti <em class="head">e</em> <em class="dep">centinaia</em> di feriti<br />
 +
Cassonetti dell'immondizia <em class="head">rovesciati</em> o <em class="dep">incendiati</em><br />
 +
Partecipa <em class="head">a</em> manifestazioni politiche o <em class="dep">a</em> dibattiti
 
</td>
 
</td>
 
</tr>
 
</tr>
  
 
<tr>
 
<tr>
<td>det</td><td>[http://it.wiktionary.org/wiki/determinante determiner]</td><td>Relation between a nominal head and its determiner.</td><td>
+
<td>det</td><td>[http://it.wiktionary.org/wiki/determinante determiner]</td><td>
 +
Relation between a nominal head and its determiner.</td><td>
 
<em class="dep">Una</em> <em class="head">sala</em> ha dovuto essere sgomberata<br />
 
<em class="dep">Una</em> <em class="head">sala</em> ha dovuto essere sgomberata<br />
 
Rilevata <em class="dep">la</em> <em class="head">presenza</em> di gas
 
Rilevata <em class="dep">la</em> <em class="head">presenza</em> di gas
 
</td>
 
</td>
 
</tr>
 
</tr>
 
+
<!--
 
<tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td>dis</td><td>disjunctive conjunction</td><td>Relation between a disjunctive conjunction in coordinate structures and the first conjunct which is taken to be the head of the whole coordinate structure.
 
<td>dis</td><td>disjunctive conjunction</td><td>Relation between a disjunctive conjunction in coordinate structures and the first conjunct which is taken to be the head of the whole coordinate structure.
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<td>mod</td><td>modifier</td><td>Relation between a head and its adjectival, adverbial, and clausal modifier.  For example, noun+adjective, adverb+verb, and phrasal modifiers. Also noun+noun appositive constituents.</td><td>
+
<td>mod</td><td>modifier</td><td>Relation between a head and its adjectival, adverbial, and clausal modifier.  For example, noun+adjective, adverb+verb, and phrasal modifiers. Also noun+noun appositive constituents. Neutralizes mod_loc, mod_temp.</td><td>
 
I colori <em class="head">sono</em> <em class="dep">sempre</em> gli stessi<br />
 
I colori <em class="head">sono</em> <em class="dep">sempre</em> gli stessi<br />
 
<em class="head">Colori</em> <em class="dep">intensi</em><br />
 
<em class="head">Colori</em> <em class="dep">intensi</em><br />
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<em class="head">Cesare</em> l'<em class="dep">Imperatore</em><br />
 
<em class="head">Cesare</em> l'<em class="dep">Imperatore</em><br />
 
<em class="dep">Per</em> arrivare in tempo, sono <em class="head">partito</em> molto presto <br />
 
<em class="dep">Per</em> arrivare in tempo, sono <em class="head">partito</em> molto presto <br />
<em class="dep">Quando</em> la campanella suona, i bambini <em class="head">escono</em> da scuola
+
<em class="dep">Quando</em> la campanella suona, i bambini <em class="head">escono</em> da scuola<br />
 +
Non <em class="head">so</em> <em class="dep">dove</em><br />
 +
Tutto <em class="head">cominciò</em> proprio <em class="dep">lì</em><br />
 +
Avrei voluto <em class="head">fermar</em>mi <em class="dep">qui</em> più a lungo<br />
 +
Scoperto 75 <em class="head">anni</em> <em class="dep">fa</em><br />
 +
Non <em class="head">superano</em> <em class="dep">mai</em> gli 8 milioni<br />
 
</td>
 
</td>
 
</tr>
 
</tr>
 
+
<!--
 
<tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td>mod_loc</td><td>locative modifier</td><td>Relation between a head and its adjectival, adverbial, and clausal modifier that expresses either a static or directional location.</td><td>
 
<td>mod_loc</td><td>locative modifier</td><td>Relation between a head and its adjectival, adverbial, and clausal modifier that expresses either a static or directional location.</td><td>
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<!--
<td>mod_rel</td><td>relative modifier</td><td>Relation between the verbal head of a relative clause and its nominal head in the higher clause.
 
<ref>The ''mod_rel'' relation is also used in case of free relatives, linking the verbal head of the free relative to the ''chi'' pronoun (which in turn is directly linked to its governor)</ref>
 
</td><td>
 
<em class="head">Box</em> che &egrave; stato <em class="dep">trovato</em> nel pomeriggio<br />
 
Quell'<em class="head">ordine</em> che i due Stranamore pentiti avevano <em class="dep">imposto</em> per cinquant'anni<br />
 
Non &egrave; mai stato accertato <em class="head">chi</em> <em class="dep">volle</em> la sua morte<br />
 
</td>
 
</tr>
 
 
 
 
<tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td>mod_temp</td><td>temporal modifier</td><td>A temporal relation between a head and its adjectival, adverbial, and clausal modifier.</td><td>
 
<td>mod_temp</td><td>temporal modifier</td><td>A temporal relation between a head and its adjectival, adverbial, and clausal modifier.</td><td>
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</td>
 
</td>
 
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<td>modal</td><td>modal verb</td><td>Relation between a verbal head and a modal verb.</td><td>
 
Una sala ha <em class="dep">dovuto</em> essere <em class="head">sgomberata</em><br />
 
Avrebbe <em class="dep">potuto</em> <em class="head">ripeter</em>si
 
</td>
 
</tr>
 
 
 
 
 
 
<tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td>neg</td><td>negative</td><td>Negative modifier (“no” or “non”)</td>
 
<td>neg</td><td>negative</td><td>Negative modifier (“no” or “non”)</td>
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<td>pred</td><td>predicative complement</td><td>Relation between a head and a predicative complement, be it subject or object predicative.</td><td>
+
<td>pred</td><td>predicative complement</td><td>Relation between a head and a predicative complement, be it subject or object predicative. Neutralizes pred_loc, pred_temp.</td><td>
 
L'incontro &egrave; <em class="head">stato</em> <em class="dep">fatale</em>
 
L'incontro &egrave; <em class="head">stato</em> <em class="dep">fatale</em>
 
<br />
 
<br />
Questo <em class="head">&egrave;</em> il <em class="dep">messaggio</em> finale
+
Questo <em class="head">&egrave;</em> il <em class="dep">messaggio</em> finale<br />
 +
Il presidente non <em class="head">era</em> <em class="dep">in</em> casa<br />
 +
La riunione <em class="head">è</em> <em class="dep">alle</em> 5
 
</td>
 
</td>
 
</tr>
 
</tr>
 
+
<!--
 
<tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td>pred_loc</td><td>locative predicate</td><td>Expresses a spatial property of the subject, after a linking verb.
 
<td>pred_loc</td><td>locative predicate</td><td>Expresses a spatial property of the subject, after a linking verb.
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</td>
 
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+
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<td>prep</td><td>preposition</td><td>Relation between a prepositional head and its complement, whether clausal or non-clausal.</td>
 
<td>prep</td><td>preposition</td><td>Relation between a prepositional head and its complement, whether clausal or non-clausal.</td>
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<td>punc</td><td>punctuation</td><td>Relation between a word token and a punctuation mark.</td><td>
 
<td>punc</td><td>punctuation</td><td>Relation between a word token and a punctuation mark.</td><td>
 
<em class="head">Teatro</em> della tragedia <em class="dep">,</em> ...<br />
 
<em class="head">Teatro</em> della tragedia <em class="dep">,</em> ...<br />
 +
</td>
 +
</tr>
 +
 +
<tr>
 +
<td>relcl</td><td>relative clause modifier</td><td>Relation between the verbal head of a relative clause and its nominal head in the higher clause.
 +
<ref>The ''relcl'' relation is also used in case of free relatives, linking the verbal head of the free relative to the ''chi'' pronoun (which in turn is directly linked to its governor)</ref>
 +
</td><td>
 +
<em class="head">Box</em> che &egrave; stato <em class="dep">trovato</em> nel pomeriggio<br />
 +
Quell'<em class="head">ordine</em> che i due Stranamore pentiti avevano <em class="dep">imposto</em> per cinquant'anni<br />
 +
Non &egrave; mai stato accertato <em class="head">chi</em> <em class="dep">volle</em> la sua morte<br />
 
</td>
 
</td>
 
</tr>
 
</tr>
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<td>subj</td><td>[http://it.wiktionary.org/wiki/soggetto subject]</td><td>Relation between an active verb and its subject.  It is also used to mark clausal subjects.
 
<td>subj</td><td>[http://it.wiktionary.org/wiki/soggetto subject]</td><td>Relation between an active verb and its subject.  It is also used to mark clausal subjects.
<ref>When the subject is not explicit, as it occurs in pro-drop languages like Italian, the subject relation is not present: the morpho-syntactic features of the subject, can be induced from the inflectional features of the verb.</ref></td><td>
+
<ref name="due">When the subject is not explicit, as it occurs in pro-drop languages like Italian, the subject relation is not present: the morpho-syntactic features of the subject, can be induced from the inflectional features of the verb.</ref></td><td>
 
il <em class="dep">testimone</em> ha <em class="head">parlato</em> subito<br />
 
il <em class="dep">testimone</em> ha <em class="head">parlato</em> subito<br />
 
le <em class="dep">vittime</em> <em class="head">seguivano</em> gli aiuti
 
le <em class="dep">vittime</em> <em class="head">seguivano</em> gli aiuti
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</td>
 
</td>
 
</tr>
 
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+
<!--
 
<tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td>voc</td><td>vocative</td><td>Vocative expression</td><td>
 
<td>voc</td><td>vocative</td><td>Vocative expression</td><td>
<em class="dep">Signor</em> presidente, <em class="head">chiedo</em> la parola
+
Signor <em class="dep">presidente</em>, <em class="head">chiedo</em> la parola
 
</td>
 
</td>
 +
</tr>
 +
-->
 
</table>
 
</table>
 +
  
 
== Notes ==
 
== Notes ==
<references/>
+
 
 +
<references />

Revision as of 12:11, 5 June 2013

MIDT Dependencies Tagset

Notation: this color is used for heads and this one for dependents.

TagRelation TypeDescriptionExamples
argargument Relation between a verbal or nominal head and a non-subject clausal argument. Il 63% dei francesi ha imposto al presidente di rinunciare alla sua bomba

È giunto il momento di creare un'area denuclearizzata
Le autorità hanno annunciato che il blitz è concluso
La decisione di continuare...
...escludendo che il militare volesse veramente mettere in pericolo...
Sono rifiutati di fornire informazione

auxauxiliaryRelation between a verb and its auxiliary or between a verbal head and a modal verb. Il corazziere è stato individuato

Il corazziere è stato individuato
Ha dichiarato di aver pagato i terroristi
Una sala ha dovuto essere sgomberata
Avrebbe potuto ripetersi

clitcliticRelation between a clitic pronoun and a verbal head used in pronominal form. La sedia si è rotta

Non ci rendiamo conto
Si tratta della scoperta

compcomplementRelation between a head and a prepositional complement, whether a modifier or a subcategorized argument. Neutralizes comp_ind, comp_loc, comp_temp, ...

Fu assassinata da un pazzo
E' più interessante del libro
Oggi come allora
Più di quattrocento esemplari
Osteggiata dal governo di Berna
Grande quanto mezza Italia
Ho dato il libro a lui
I carabinieri gli hanno recapitato il decreto
Si trovava in un parco
Era uscito di casa alle 10
Si trovava in un parco
Era uscito di casa alle 10

concopulative conjunctionRelation between a copulative conjunction or disjunction in coordinate structures and the first conjunct or disjunct.

Una ragazza violentata e sequestrata da due slavi
Gabriella e Paolo sono partiti
Hanno riarmato , addestrato e preparato l'esercito
Hanno riarmato, addestrato e preparato l'esercito
Scontri , assalti e centinaia di feriti
Scontri, assalti e centinaia di feriti
Cassonetti dell'immondizia rovesciati o incendiati
Partecipa a manifestazioni politiche o a dibattiti

concatconcatenationRelation between tokens forming complex word forms (e.g. complex proper nouns, multi-word expressions and the like).

Il segretario di De Michelis
L'enciclica "Mulieris dignitatem"
La International Public Sport
La International Public Sport

conjconjunct linked by a copulative conjunction (con)Relation between the conjuncts after the first to the previous one. conj is used in association with coordinating copulative conjunctions.

Una ragazza violentata e sequestrata da due slavi
Gabriella e Paolo sono partiti
Hanno riarmato , addestrato e preparato l'esercito
Hanno riarmato, addestrato e preparato l'esercito
Scontri , assalti e centinaia di feriti
Scontri, assalti e centinaia di feriti
Cassonetti dell'immondizia rovesciati o incendiati
Partecipa a manifestazioni politiche o a dibattiti

detdeterminer Relation between a nominal head and its determiner.

Una sala ha dovuto essere sgomberata
Rilevata la presenza di gas

modmodifierRelation between a head and its adjectival, adverbial, and clausal modifier. For example, noun+adjective, adverb+verb, and phrasal modifiers. Also noun+noun appositive constituents. Neutralizes mod_loc, mod_temp.

I colori sono sempre gli stessi
Colori intensi
Trionfo di Didoni nei 20 km di marcia
Cesare l'Imperatore
Per arrivare in tempo, sono partito molto presto
Quando la campanella suona, i bambini escono da scuola
Non so dove
Tutto cominciò proprio
Avrei voluto fermarmi qui più a lungo
Scoperto 75 anni fa
Non superano mai gli 8 milioni

negnegativeNegative modifier (“no” or “non”) A volte non dormo
objdirect objectRelation between a verbal head and its direct object (always non-clausal).

Hanno un modo di ragionare rozzo
Centellinando le informazioni
È giunto il momento di creare un'area denuclearizzata
Rilevata la presenza di gas

predpredicative complementRelation between a head and a predicative complement, be it subject or object predicative. Neutralizes pred_loc, pred_temp.

L'incontro è stato fatale
Questo è il messaggio finale
Il presidente non era in casa
La riunione è alle 5

prepprepositionRelation between a prepositional head and its complement, whether clausal or non-clausal. Un contributo alla lotta contro la criminalità

Un contributo alla lotta contro la criminalità
Prima di partire ho telefonato

puncpunctuationRelation between a word token and a punctuation mark.

Teatro della tragedia , ...

relclrelative clause modifierRelation between the verbal head of a relative clause and its nominal head in the higher clause.

[1]

Box che è stato trovato nel pomeriggio
Quell'ordine che i due Stranamore pentiti avevano imposto per cinquant'anni
Non è mai stato accertato chi volle la sua morte

ROOTsentence rootHead of sentence.

Desidero [2] dormire.

subsubordinate clauseRelation between a subordinative conjunction and the verbal head of its clausal complement.

Ha detto che non intendeva fare nulla
Le autorità hanno annunciato che il blitz è concluso
Venne ucciso mentre cercava di difendere la ragazza

subjsubjectRelation between an active verb and its subject. It is also used to mark clausal subjects. [3]

il testimone ha parlato subito
le vittime seguivano gli aiuti

subj_passpassive subjectRelation between a passive verb and its subject.

I missionari erano stati rapiti la mattina presto
Circa 83.000 franchi furono spesi


Notes

  1. The relcl relation is also used in case of free relatives, linking the verbal head of the free relative to the chi pronoun (which in turn is directly linked to its governor)
  2. Only the dependent is shown, since the head is a fictitious root node
  3. When the subject is not explicit, as it occurs in pro-drop languages like Italian, the subject relation is not present: the morpho-syntactic features of the subject, can be induced from the inflectional features of the verb.