Difference between revisions of "Dependencies"

From Medialab

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== MIDT Dependencies Tagset ==
x">
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 +
Notation: <em class="head">this color is used for heads</em> and <em class="dep">this one for dependents</em>.
 +
 
 +
<table class="bordered" style="padding: 4px">
 +
<tr><th style="width: 10%" bgcolor="#CCCCCC">Tag</th><th style="width: 15%" bgcolor="#CCCCCC">Relation Type</th><th style="width: 30%" bgcolor="#CCCCCC">Description</th><th style="width: 45%" bgcolor="#CCCCCC">Examples</th></tr>
  
 
<tr>
 
<tr>
  <th bgcolor="#eee">MIDT</th>
+
<td>arg</td><td>argument</td>
  <th bgcolor="#eee">TANL</th>
+
<td>Relation between a verbal or nominal head and a non-subject clausal argument.</td>
  <th bgcolor="#eee">TUT</th>
+
<td>Il 63% dei francesi ha <em class="head">imposto</em> al presidente <em class="dep">di</em> rinunciare alla sua bomba<br />
  <th bgcolor="#eee">Description</th>
+
&Egrave; giunto il <em class="head">momento</em> <em class="dep">di</em> creare un'area denuclearizzata<br />
 +
Le autorit&agrave; hanno <em class="head">annunciato</em> <em class="dep">che</em> il blitz &egrave; concluso<br />
 +
La <em class="head">decisione</em> <em class="dep">di</em> continuare...<br />
 +
...<em class="head">escludendo</em> <em class="dep">che</em> il militare volesse veramente mettere in pericolo...<br />
 +
Sono <em class="head">rifiutati</em> <em class="dep">di</em> fornire informazione
 +
</td>
 
</tr>
 
</tr>
 
<tr>
 
<tr>
  <td>_ROOT</td>
+
<td>aux</td><td>[http://it.wiktionary.org/wiki/ausiliare auxiliary]</td><td>Relation between a verb and its auxiliary.</td>
  <td>ROOT</td>
+
<td>Il corazziere <em class="dep">&egrave;</em> <em class="head">stato</em> individuato<br />
  <td>TOP, TOPGAP</td>
+
Il corazziere &egrave; <em class="dep">stato</em> <em class="head">individuato</em><br />
  <td>&nbsp;</td>
+
<em class="dep">Ha</em> <em class="head">dichiarato</em> di <em class="dep">aver</em> <em class="head">pagato</em> i terroristi <br />
 +
</td>
 
</tr>
 
</tr>
 +
 
<tr>
 
<tr>
  <td>_APPO</td>
+
<td>clit</td><td>[http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Category:Clitics clitic]</td><td>Relation between a clitic pronoun and a verbal head used in pronominal form.</td>
  <td>mod</td>
+
<td>La sedia <em class="dep">si</em> &egrave; <em class="head">rotta</em><br />
  <td>APPOSITION</td>
+
Non <em class="dep">ci</em> <em class="head">rendiamo</em> conto<br />
  <td>noun modifier, when dependent is noun or number</td>
+
<em class="dep">Si</em> <em class="head">tratta</em> della scoperta
 +
</td>
 
</tr>
 
</tr>
 +
 
<tr>
 
<tr>
  <td>_ARG</td>
+
<td>comp</td><td>[http://it.wiktionary.org/wiki/complemento complement]</td><td>Relation between a head and a prepositional complement, whether a modifier or a subcategorized argument.</td><td>
  <td>arg</td>
+
Fu <em class="head">assassinata</em> <em class="dep">da</em> un pazzo<br />
  <td>OBJ, INDCOMPL</td>
+
E' più <em class="head">interessante</em> <em class="dep">del</em> libro<br />
  <td>introduced by preposition or subord conjunction</td>
+
<em class="head">Oggi</em> <em class="dep">come</em> allora<br />
 +
<em class="head">Più</em> <em class="dep">di</em> quattrocento esemplari<br />
 +
<em class="head">Osteggiata</em> <em class="dep">dal</em> governo di Berna<br />
 +
<em class="head">Grande</em> <em class="dep">quanto</em> mezza Italia
 +
</td>
 
</tr>
 
</tr>
 +
 
<tr>
 
<tr>
  <td>_AUX</td>
+
<td>comp_ind</td><td>[http://it.wiktionary.org/wiki/complemento_di_termine indirect complement/object]</td><td>Denotes the affected participant of an event.</td><td>
  <td>aux</td>
+
Ho <em class="head">dato</em> il libro <em class="dep">a</em> lui<br />
  <td>AUX(+PASSIVE +PROGRESSIVE +TENSE)</td>
+
I carabinieri <em class="dep">gli</em> hanno <em class="head">recapitato</em> il decreto
  <td>&nbsp;</td>
+
</td>
 
</tr>
 
</tr>
 +
 
<tr>
 
<tr>
  <td>_CLIT</td>
+
<td>comp_loc</td><td>[http://it.wiktionary.org/wiki/complemento_di_luogo locative complement]</td><td>Expresses either a location or a direction of movement of an action.</td>
  <td>clit</td>
+
<td>
  <td>EMPTYCOMPL, SUBJ/SUBJ+IMPERS</td>
+
Si <em class="head">trovava</em> <em class="dep">in</em> un parco<br />
  <td>&nbsp;</td>
+
Era <em class="head">uscito</em> <em class="dep">di</em> casa alle 10<br />
 +
</td>
 
</tr>
 
</tr>
 +
 
<tr>
 
<tr>
  <td>_COMP</td>
+
<td>comp_temp</td><td>[http://it.wiktionary.org/wiki/complemento_di_tempo temporal complement]</td><td>Denotes a temporal relation with a verbal head.</td>
  <td>comp</td>
+
<td>
  <td>INDCOMPL, SUBJ/INDCOMPL, COORD+COMPAR</td>
+
<em class="dep">Nel</em> 1985 è stata <em class="head">uccisa</em> un'antropologa<br />
  <td>coverage</td>
+
L'allarme è <em class="head">scattato</em> la scorsa <em class="dep">settimana</em><br />
 +
</td>
 
</tr>
 
</tr>
 +
 
<tr>
 
<tr>
  <td>_COMP</td>
+
<td>con</td><td>copulative conjunction</td><td>Relation between a copulative conjunction in coordinate structures and the first conjunct (which becomes the head of the whole coordinate structure).
  <td>comp_ind</td>
+
</td><td>
  <td>INDOBJ, SUBJ/INDOBJ</td>
+
Una ragazza <em class="head">violentata</em> <em class="dep">e</em> sequestrata da due slavi<br />
  <td>&nbsp;</td>
+
<em class="head">Gabriella</em> <em class="dep">e</em> Paolo sono partiti<br />
 +
Hanno <em class="head">riarmato</em> <em class="dep">,</em> addestrato e preparato l'esercito<br />
 +
Hanno riarmato, <em class="head">addestrato</em> <em class="dep">e</em> preparato l'esercito<br />
 +
<em class="head">Scontri</em> <em class="dep">,</em> assalti e centinaia di feriti<br />
 +
Scontri, <em class="head">assalti</em> <em class="dep">e</em> centinaia di feriti
 +
</td>
 
</tr>
 
</tr>
 +
 
<tr>
 
<tr>
  <td>_COMP</td>
+
<td>concat</td><td>concatenation</td><td>Relation between tokens forming complex word forms (e.g. complex proper nouns, multi-word expressions and the like).</td><td>
  <td>comp_loc</td>
+
Il segretario di <em class="head">De</em> <em class="dep">Michelis</em><br />
  <td>no equivalent relation (see comp)</td>
+
L'enciclica "<em class="head">Mulieris</em> <em class="dep">dignitatem</em>"<br />
  <td>coverage</td>
+
La <em class="head">International</em> <em class="dep">Public</em> Sport<br />
 +
La International <em class="head">Public</em> <em class="dep">Sport</em><br />
 +
</td>
 
</tr>
 
</tr>
 +
 
<tr>
 
<tr>
  <td>_COMP</td>
+
<td>conj</td><td>conjunct linked by a [[copulative conjunction]] (con)</td><td>Relation between the conjuncts after the first to the first one, which is the head of the whole coordinate structure. ''conj'' is used in association with coordinating copulative conjunctions.
  <td>comp_temp</td>
+
</td><td>
  <td>no equivalent relation (see comp)</td>
+
Una ragazza <em class="head">violentata</em> e <em class="dep">sequestrata</em> da due slavi<br />
  <td>coverage</td>
+
<em class="head">Gabriella</em> e <em class="dep">Paolo</em> sono partiti<br />
 +
Hanno <em class="head">riarmato</em> , <em class="dep">addestrato</em> e preparato l'esercito<br />
 +
Hanno riarmato, <em class="head">addestrato</em> e <em class="dep">preparato</em> l'esercito<br />
 +
<em class="head">Scontri</em> , <em class="dep">assalti</em> e centinaia di feriti<br />
 +
Scontri, assalti <em class="head">e</em> <em class="dep">centinaia</em> di feriti<br />
 +
</td>
 
</tr>
 
</tr>
 +
 
<tr>
 
<tr>
  <td>_CON</td>
+
<td>det</td><td>[http://it.wiktionary.org/wiki/determinante determiner]</td><td>Relation between a nominal head and its determiner.</td><td>
  <td>con</td>
+
<em class="dep">Una</em> <em class="head">sala</em> ha dovuto essere sgomberata<br />
  <td>COORD(+BASE +ADVERS +COMPAR +COND +CORRELAT +ESPLIC +RANGE +SYMMETRIC)</td>
+
Rilevata <em class="dep">la</em> <em class="head">presenza</em> di gas
  <td>coverage, head selection</td>
+
</td>
 
</tr>
 
</tr>
 +
 
<tr>
 
<tr>
  <td>_CONCAT</td>
+
<td>dis</td><td>disjunctive conjunction</td><td>Relation between a disjunctive conjunction in coordinate structures and the first conjunct which is taken to be the head of the whole coordinate structure.
  <td>concat</td>
+
</td><td>
  <td>CONTIN(+LOCUT +DENOM +PREP)</td>
+
Cassonetti dell'immondizia <em class="head">rovesciati</em> <em class="dep">o</em> incendiati<br />
  <td>&nbsp;</td>
+
Partecipa <em class="head">a</em> manifestazioni politiche <em class="dep">o</em> a dibattiti
 +
</td>
 
</tr>
 
</tr>
 +
 
<tr>
 
<tr>
  <td>_CONJ</td>
+
<td>disj</td><td>conjunct in a [[disjunctive compound]] linked by a [[disjunctive conjunction]] (dis)</td><td>Relation between the (second, third, …) conjuncts to the first conjunct which is taken as the head of the whole coordinate structure. ''disj'' is used in association with coordinating disjunctive conjunctions.
  <td>conj</td>
+
</td><td>
  <td>COORD2ND(+BASE +ADVERS +COMPAR +COND +CORRELAT +ESPLIC +RANGE +SYMMETRIC)</td>
+
Cassonetti dell'immondizia <em class="head">rovesciati</em> o <em class="dep">incendiati</em><br />
  <td>coverage<br />head selection</td>
+
Partecipa <em class="head">a</em> manifestazioni politiche o <em class="dep">a</em> dibattiti
 +
</td>
 
</tr>
 
</tr>
 +
 
<tr>
 
<tr>
  <td>_DET, _ARG</td>
+
<td>mod</td><td>modifier</td><td>Relation between a head and its adjectival, adverbial, and clausal modifier.  For example, noun+adjective, adverb+verb, and phrasal modifiers.  Also noun+noun appositive constituents.</td><td>
  <td>det</td>
+
I colori <em class="head">sono</em> <em class="dep">sempre</em> gli stessi<br />
  <td>ARG</td>
+
<em class="head">Colori</em> <em class="dep">intensi</em><br />
  <td>head selection</td>
+
Trionfo di Didoni nei <em class="dep">20</em> <em class="head">km</em> di marcia<br />
 +
<em class="head">Cesare</em> l'<em class="dep">Imperatore</em><br />
 +
<em class="dep">Per</em> arrivare in tempo, sono <em class="head">partito</em> molto presto <br />
 +
<em class="dep">Quando</em> la campanella suona, i bambini <em class="head">escono</em> da scuola
 +
</td>
 
</tr>
 
</tr>
 +
 
<tr>
 
<tr>
  <td>_CON</td>
+
<td>mod_loc</td><td>locative modifier</td><td>Relation between a head and its adjectival, adverbial, and clausal modifier that expresses either a static or directional location.</td><td>
  <td>dis</td>
+
Non <em class="head">so</em> <em class="dep">dove</em><br />
  <td>no equivalent relation (see con)</td>
+
Tutto <em class="head">cominciò</em> proprio <em class="dep">lì</em><br />
  <td>coverage</td>
+
Avrei voluto <em class="head">fermar</em>mi <em class="dep">qui</em> più a lungo<br />
 +
</td>
 
</tr>
 
</tr>
 +
 
<tr>
 
<tr>
  <td>_CONJ</td>
+
<td>mod_rel</td><td>relative modifier</td><td>Relation between the verbal head of a relative clause and its nominal head in the higher clause.
  <td>disj</td>
+
<ref>The ''mod_rel'' relation is also used in case of free relatives, linking the verbal head of the free relative to the ''chi'' pronoun (which in turn is directly linked to its governor)</ref>
  <td>no equivalent relation (see conj)</td>
+
</td><td>
  <td>coverage</td>
+
<em class="head">Box</em> che &egrave; stato <em class="dep">trovato</em> nel pomeriggio<br />
 +
Quell'<em class="head">ordine</em> che i due Stranamore pentiti avevano <em class="dep">imposto</em> per cinquant'anni<br />
 +
Non &egrave; mai stato accertato <em class="head">chi</em> <em class="dep">volle</em> la sua morte<br />
 +
</td>
 
</tr>
 
</tr>
 +
 
<tr>
 
<tr>
  <td>_AUX</td>
+
<td>mod_temp</td><td>temporal modifier</td><td>A temporal relation between a head and its adjectival, adverbial, and clausal modifier.</td><td>
  <td>modal</td>
+
<em class="dep">Ieri</em> hanno <em class="head">dormito</em> all'aperto<br />
  <td>no equivalent relation (see mod)</td>
+
Scoperto 75 <em class="head">anni</em> <em class="dep">fa</em><br />
  <td>coverage, head selection</td>
+
Non <em class="head">superano</em> <em class="dep">mai</em> gli 8 milioni<br />
 +
</td>
 
</tr>
 
</tr>
 +
 
<tr>
 
<tr>
  <td>_MOD</td>
+
<td>modal</td><td>modal verb</td><td>Relation between a verbal head and a modal verb.</td><td>
  <td>mod</td>
+
Una sala ha <em class="dep">dovuto</em> essere <em class="head">sgomberata</em><br />
  <td>RMODRMOD+RELCL+REDUC, INTERJECTION, COORDANTEC+COMPAR</td>
+
Avrebbe <em class="dep">potuto</em> <em class="head">ripeter</em>si
  <td>coverage</td>
+
</td>
 
</tr>
 
</tr>
 +
 +
 
<tr>
 
<tr>
  <td>_MOD</td>
+
<td>neg</td><td>negative</td><td>Negative modifier (“no” or “non”)</td>
  <td>mod_loc</td>
+
<td>A volte <em class="dep">non</em> <em class="head">dormo</em>
  <td>no equivalent relation (see mod)</td>
+
</td>
  <td>coverage</td>
 
 
</tr>
 
</tr>
 +
 
<tr>
 
<tr>
  <td>_RELCL</td>
+
<td>obj</td><td>[http://it.wiktionary.org/wiki/complemento_oggetto direct object]</td><td>Relation between a verbal head and its direct object (always non-clausal).</td><td>
  <td>mod_rel</td>
+
<em class="head">Hanno</em> un <em class="dep">modo</em> di ragionare rozzo<br />
  <td>RMOD+RELCL</td>
+
<em class="head">Centellinando</em> le <em class="dep">informazioni</em><br />
  <td>coverage</td>
+
&Egrave; giunto il momento di <em class="head">creare</em> un'<em class="dep">area</em> denuclearizzata<br />
 +
<em class="head">Rilevata</em> la <em class="dep">presenza</em> di gas
 +
</td>
 
</tr>
 
</tr>
 +
 
<tr>
 
<tr>
  <td>_MOD</td>
+
<td>pred</td><td>predicative complement</td><td>Relation between a head and a predicative complement, be it subject or object predicative.</td><td>
  <td>mod_temp</td>
+
L'incontro &egrave; <em class="head">stato</em> <em class="dep">fatale</em>
  <td>no equivalent relation (see mod)</td>
+
<br />
  <td>coverage</td>
+
Questo <em class="head">&egrave;</em> il <em class="dep">messaggio</em> finale
 +
</td>
 
</tr>
 
</tr>
 +
 
<tr>
 
<tr>
  <td>_NEG</td>
+
<td>pred_loc</td><td>locative predicate</td><td>Expresses a spatial property of the subject, after a linking verb.
  <td>neg</td>
+
</td><td>
  <td>no equivalent relation (see mod)</td>
+
Il presidente non <em class="head">era</em> <em class="dep">in</em> casa
  <td>coverage</td>
+
</td>
 
</tr>
 
</tr>
 +
 
<tr>
 
<tr>
  <td>_OBJ</td>
+
<td>pred_temp</td><td>temporal predicate</td><td>Expresses a temporal property of the subject, after a linking verb. </td><td>
  <td>obj</td>
+
La riunione <em class="head">è</em> <em class="dep">alle</em> 5
  <td>OBJ<br />OBJ, SUBJ/OBJ, EXTRAOBJ</td>
+
</td>
  <td>coverage</td>
 
 
</tr>
 
</tr>
 +
 
<tr>
 
<tr>
  <td>_PRED</td>
+
<td>prep</td><td>preposition</td><td>Relation between a prepositional head and its complement, whether clausal or non-clausal.</td>
  <td>pred</td>
+
<td>Un contributo <em class="head">alla</em> <em class="dep">lotta</em> contro la criminalit&agrave;<br />
  <td>PREDCOMPL(+SUBJ +OBJ), RMODPRED(+OBJ +SUBJ), INTERJECTION, COORDANTEC+COMPAR</td>
+
Un contributo alla lotta <em class="head">contro</em> la <em class="dep">criminalit&agrave;</em><br />
  <td>&nbsp;</td>
+
Prima<em class="head"> di</em> <em class="dep">partire</em> ho telefonato
 +
</td>
 
</tr>
 
</tr>
 +
 
<tr>
 
<tr>
  <td>_PRED</td>
+
<td>punc</td><td>punctuation</td><td>Relation between a word token and a punctuation mark.</td><td>
  <td>pred_loc</td>
+
<em class="head">Teatro</em> della tragedia <em class="dep">,</em> ...<br />
  <td>no equivalent relation (see pred)</td>
+
</td>
  <td>coverage</td>
 
 
</tr>
 
</tr>
 +
 
<tr>
 
<tr>
  <td>_PRED</td>
+
<td>ROOT</td><td>sentence root</td><td>Head of sentence.</td>
  <td>pred_temp</td>
+
<td>
  <td>no equivalent relation (see pred)</td>
+
<em class="dep">Desidero</em>
  <td>coverage</td>
+
<ref>Only the dependent is shown, since the head is a fictitious root node</ref>
 +
dormire.
 +
</td>
 
</tr>
 
</tr>
 +
 
<tr>
 
<tr>
  <td>_PREP, _ARG</td>
+
<td>sub</td><td>subordinate clause</td><td>Relation between a subordinative conjunction and the verbal head of its clausal complement.</td><td>
  <td>prep</td>
+
Ha detto <em class="head">che</em> non <em class="dep">intendeva</em> fare nulla <br />
  <td>ARG</td>
+
Le autorit&agrave; hanno annunciato <em class="head">che</em> il blitz &egrave;
  <td>head selection</td>
+
<em class="dep">concluso</em><br />
 +
Venne ucciso <em class="head">mentre</em> <em class="dep">cercava</em> di difendere la ragazza<br />
 +
</td>
 
</tr>
 
</tr>
 +
 
<tr>
 
<tr>
  <td>_PUNC</td>
+
<td>subj</td><td>[http://it.wiktionary.org/wiki/soggetto subject]</td><td>Relation between an active verb and its subject.  It is also used to mark clausal subjects.
  <td>punc</td>
+
<ref>When the subject is not explicit, as it occurs in pro-drop languages like Italian, the subject relation is not present: the morpho-syntactic features of the subject, can be induced from the inflectional features of the verb.</ref></td><td>
  <td>CLOSE(+PARENTHETICAL +QUOTES), END, INITIATOR, OPEN(+PARENTHETICAL+QUOTES), SEPARATOR</td>
+
il <em class="dep">testimone</em> ha <em class="head">parlato</em> subito<br />
  <td>&nbsp;</td>
+
le <em class="dep">vittime</em> <em class="head">seguivano</em> gli aiuti
 +
<br />
 +
</td>
 
</tr>
 
</tr>
 +
 
<tr>
 
<tr>
  <td>_SUB, _ARG</td>
+
<td>subj_pass</td><td>passive subject</td><td>Relation between a passive verb and its subject.</td>
  <td>sub</td>
+
<td>
  <td>ARG</td>
+
I <em class="dep">missionari</em> erano stati <em class="head">rapiti</em> la mattina presto<br />
  <td>head selection</td>
+
Circa 83.000 <em class="dep">franchi</em> furono <em class="head">spesi</em><br />
</tr>
+
</td>
<tr>
 
  <td>_SUBJ</td>
 
  <td>subj</td>
 
  <td>SUBJ, EXTRASUBJ</td>
 
  <td>coverage</td>
 
 
</tr>
 
</tr>
 +
 
<tr>
 
<tr>
  <td>_SUBJ_PASS</td>
+
<td>voc</td><td>vocative</td><td>Vocative expression</td><td>
  <td>subj_pass</td>
+
<em class="dep">Signor</em> presidente, <em class="head">chiedo</em> la parola
  <td>OBJ/SUBJ</td>
+
</td>
  <td>&nbsp;</td>
 
</tr>
 
 
</table>
 
</table>
 +
 +
== Notes ==
 +
<references/>

Revision as of 13:07, 5 June 2013

MIDT Dependencies Tagset

Notation: this color is used for heads and this one for dependents.

TagRelation TypeDescriptionExamples
argargument Relation between a verbal or nominal head and a non-subject clausal argument. Il 63% dei francesi ha imposto al presidente di rinunciare alla sua bomba

È giunto il momento di creare un'area denuclearizzata
Le autorità hanno annunciato che il blitz è concluso
La decisione di continuare...
...escludendo che il militare volesse veramente mettere in pericolo...
Sono rifiutati di fornire informazione

auxauxiliaryRelation between a verb and its auxiliary. Il corazziere è stato individuato

Il corazziere è stato individuato
Ha dichiarato di aver pagato i terroristi

clitcliticRelation between a clitic pronoun and a verbal head used in pronominal form. La sedia si è rotta

Non ci rendiamo conto
Si tratta della scoperta

compcomplementRelation between a head and a prepositional complement, whether a modifier or a subcategorized argument.

Fu assassinata da un pazzo
E' più interessante del libro
Oggi come allora
Più di quattrocento esemplari
Osteggiata dal governo di Berna
Grande quanto mezza Italia

comp_indindirect complement/objectDenotes the affected participant of an event.

Ho dato il libro a lui
I carabinieri gli hanno recapitato il decreto

comp_loclocative complementExpresses either a location or a direction of movement of an action.

Si trovava in un parco
Era uscito di casa alle 10

comp_temptemporal complementDenotes a temporal relation with a verbal head.

Nel 1985 è stata uccisa un'antropologa
L'allarme è scattato la scorsa settimana

concopulative conjunctionRelation between a copulative conjunction in coordinate structures and the first conjunct (which becomes the head of the whole coordinate structure).

Una ragazza violentata e sequestrata da due slavi
Gabriella e Paolo sono partiti
Hanno riarmato , addestrato e preparato l'esercito
Hanno riarmato, addestrato e preparato l'esercito
Scontri , assalti e centinaia di feriti
Scontri, assalti e centinaia di feriti

concatconcatenationRelation between tokens forming complex word forms (e.g. complex proper nouns, multi-word expressions and the like).

Il segretario di De Michelis
L'enciclica "Mulieris dignitatem"
La International Public Sport
La International Public Sport

conjconjunct linked by a copulative conjunction (con)Relation between the conjuncts after the first to the first one, which is the head of the whole coordinate structure. conj is used in association with coordinating copulative conjunctions.

Una ragazza violentata e sequestrata da due slavi
Gabriella e Paolo sono partiti
Hanno riarmato , addestrato e preparato l'esercito
Hanno riarmato, addestrato e preparato l'esercito
Scontri , assalti e centinaia di feriti
Scontri, assalti e centinaia di feriti

detdeterminerRelation between a nominal head and its determiner.

Una sala ha dovuto essere sgomberata
Rilevata la presenza di gas

disdisjunctive conjunctionRelation between a disjunctive conjunction in coordinate structures and the first conjunct which is taken to be the head of the whole coordinate structure.

Cassonetti dell'immondizia rovesciati o incendiati
Partecipa a manifestazioni politiche o a dibattiti

disjconjunct in a disjunctive compound linked by a disjunctive conjunction (dis)Relation between the (second, third, …) conjuncts to the first conjunct which is taken as the head of the whole coordinate structure. disj is used in association with coordinating disjunctive conjunctions.

Cassonetti dell'immondizia rovesciati o incendiati
Partecipa a manifestazioni politiche o a dibattiti

modmodifierRelation between a head and its adjectival, adverbial, and clausal modifier. For example, noun+adjective, adverb+verb, and phrasal modifiers. Also noun+noun appositive constituents.

I colori sono sempre gli stessi
Colori intensi
Trionfo di Didoni nei 20 km di marcia
Cesare l'Imperatore
Per arrivare in tempo, sono partito molto presto
Quando la campanella suona, i bambini escono da scuola

mod_loclocative modifierRelation between a head and its adjectival, adverbial, and clausal modifier that expresses either a static or directional location.

Non so dove
Tutto cominciò proprio
Avrei voluto fermarmi qui più a lungo

mod_relrelative modifierRelation between the verbal head of a relative clause and its nominal head in the higher clause.

[1]

Box che è stato trovato nel pomeriggio
Quell'ordine che i due Stranamore pentiti avevano imposto per cinquant'anni
Non è mai stato accertato chi volle la sua morte

mod_temptemporal modifierA temporal relation between a head and its adjectival, adverbial, and clausal modifier.

Ieri hanno dormito all'aperto
Scoperto 75 anni fa
Non superano mai gli 8 milioni

modalmodal verbRelation between a verbal head and a modal verb.

Una sala ha dovuto essere sgomberata
Avrebbe potuto ripetersi

negnegativeNegative modifier (“no” or “non”) A volte non dormo
objdirect objectRelation between a verbal head and its direct object (always non-clausal).

Hanno un modo di ragionare rozzo
Centellinando le informazioni
È giunto il momento di creare un'area denuclearizzata
Rilevata la presenza di gas

predpredicative complementRelation between a head and a predicative complement, be it subject or object predicative.

L'incontro è stato fatale
Questo è il messaggio finale

pred_loclocative predicateExpresses a spatial property of the subject, after a linking verb.

Il presidente non era in casa

pred_temptemporal predicateExpresses a temporal property of the subject, after a linking verb.

La riunione è alle 5

prepprepositionRelation between a prepositional head and its complement, whether clausal or non-clausal. Un contributo alla lotta contro la criminalità

Un contributo alla lotta contro la criminalità
Prima di partire ho telefonato

puncpunctuationRelation between a word token and a punctuation mark.

Teatro della tragedia , ...

ROOTsentence rootHead of sentence.

Desidero [2] dormire.

subsubordinate clauseRelation between a subordinative conjunction and the verbal head of its clausal complement.

Ha detto che non intendeva fare nulla
Le autorità hanno annunciato che il blitz è concluso
Venne ucciso mentre cercava di difendere la ragazza

subjsubjectRelation between an active verb and its subject. It is also used to mark clausal subjects. [3]

il testimone ha parlato subito
le vittime seguivano gli aiuti

subj_passpassive subjectRelation between a passive verb and its subject.

I missionari erano stati rapiti la mattina presto
Circa 83.000 franchi furono spesi

vocvocativeVocative expression

Signor presidente, chiedo la parola

Notes

  1. The mod_rel relation is also used in case of free relatives, linking the verbal head of the free relative to the chi pronoun (which in turn is directly linked to its governor)
  2. Only the dependent is shown, since the head is a fictitious root node
  3. When the subject is not explicit, as it occurs in pro-drop languages like Italian, the subject relation is not present: the morpho-syntactic features of the subject, can be induced from the inflectional features of the verb.