UDL (Universal Dependencies Labels) is a resource annotated according to the Google scheme, obtained through an automatic conversion process starting from STD(STanford Dependencies) scheme.

UDL Specifications


  1. M.C. de Marneffe and C. Manning. 2008. The stanford typed dependencies representation. In Coling 2008: Proceedings of the workshop on Cross-Framework and Cross-Domain Parser Evaluation, pages 1–8, Stroudsburg, PA, USA. Association for Computational Linguistics.
  2. Marie-Catherine de Marneffe and Christopher D. Manning, Stanford typed dependencies manual, September 2008, Revised for Stanford Parser v. 3.2.0 in June 2013.
  3. Daniel Cer, Marie-Catherine de Marneffe, Daniel Jurafsky, and Christopher D. Manning. 2010. Parsing to Stanford Dependencies: Trade-offs between speed and accuracy. In 7th International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2010).
  4. Cristina Bosco, Simonetta Montemagni, Maria Simi, Converting Italian Treebanks: Towards an Italian Stanford Dependency Treebank, in the 7th Linguistic Annotation Workshop & Interoperability with Discourse, ACL workshop, Sofia, August 2013 pdf.
  5. Ryan McDonald, Joakim Nivre, Yvonne Quirmbach-Brundage, Yoav Goldberg, Dipanjan Das, Kuzman Ganchev, Keith Hall, Slav Petrov, Hao Zhang, Oscar Tackstrom, Claudia Bedini, Nuria Bertomeu Castéllo, Jungmee Lee, Universal Dependency Annotation for Multilingual Parsing, 2013 pdf.
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